1.1. A ballad is a type of poem that tells a story and was traditionally set to music. English language ballads are typically composed of four-line stanzas that follow an A-B-C-B rhyme scheme. The ballad is one of the oldest poetic forms in English.

1.2. Examples

Example 1:

La Belle Dame Sans Merci by John Keats

Keats was a poetry wizard that weaved magic with the narrative style and structure of a ballad. He used the ABCB rhyme scheme and four-line stanzas for his famous poem “La Belle Dame Sans Merci.

Lines 37-44:

“I saw pale kings and princes too,
Pale warriors, death-pale were they all;
They cried—‘La Belle Dame sans Merci
Thee hath in thrall!’

I saw their starved lips in the gloam,
With horrid warning gapèd wide,
And I awoke and found me here,
On the cold hill’s side.”

Example 2: 

Rime of the Ancient Mariner by Samuel Taylor Coleridge

Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s poetry entitled Rime of the Ancient Mariner is one of the best examples of a ballad. The poem is very strictly structured in terms of meter and rhyme, and tells a story of an old sailor who stops people on their way into a party.


Lines 115–126 of the ballad:

Day after day, day after day,
We stuck, nor breath nor motion;
As idle as a painted ship
Upon a painted ocean.

Water, water, every where,
And all the boards did shrink;
Water, water, every where,
Nor any drop to drink.

The very deep did rot: Oh Christ!
That ever this should be!
Yea, slimy things did crawl with legs
Upon the slimy sea.


Soneta ialah sebuah bentuk puisi yang berasal dari Itali; dikatakan bahawa pemuisi Sicily, Giacomo Da Lentini mencipta bentuk ini. Perkataan “soneta” terbit daripada perkataan Itali, sonetto. Menjelang abad ke-13, soneta membawa maksud puisi sepanjang 14 baris (dalam 4 stanza, dengan bilangqan baris 4-4-4-2) yang mengikut skema rima dengan ketat, dan yang juga memiliki bentuk yang khusus:


Resam penggunaan soneta sudah berubah dengan pengedaran masa. Dalam kesusasteraan Inggeris, seorang daripada penulis soneta yang amat terkenal ialah William Shakespeare, yang menulis 154 soneta.

2.2. Contoh


Sonnet 1:

From Fairest Creatures We Desire Increase

From fairest creatures we desire increase,
That thereby beauty’s rose might never die,
But as the riper should by time decrease,
His tender heir mught bear his memeory:

But thou, contracted to thine own bright eyes,
Feed’st thy light’st flame with self-substantial fuel,
Making a famine where abundance lies,
Thyself thy foe, to thy sweet self too cruel.

Thou that art now the world’s fresh ornament
And only herald to the gaudy spring,
Within thine own bud buriest thy content
And, tender churl, makest waste in niggarding.

Pity the world, or else this glutton be,
To eat the world’s due, by the grave and thee.


3.1. Apa Itu Limerik

3.2. Definisi

A limerick is a humorous poem consisting of five lines. The first, second, and fifth lines must have seven to ten (7-10) syllables while rhyming and having the same verbal rhythm. The third and fourth lines should only have five to seven (5-7) syllables; they too must rhyme with each other and have the same rhythm.

3.3. Contoh

There was a young lady of Lynn,
Who was so uncommonly thin
That when she essayed
To drink lemonade
She slipped through the straw and fell in.